Recent studies show that to improve rivers in Gauteng is going to need more than applying SuDS and Green Infrastructure on project development sites. The need to retro-fit SuDS will be important, but even that will be too slow. Strategic interventions like the proposed Kaalspruit Constructed Wetland will be needed to make a difference in the short-term. Present day streamflow carries 50Ml/day of mild to medium strength sewage into the Limpopo Water Management Area. Can we afford to wait for upstream catchment interventions to take affect that may take decades to develop and implement?